ANTIBOITICS OR PROBIOTICS?
ANTIBOITICS OR PROBIOTICS?
Infections and communicable diseases from disease-causing agents are a vast problem killing millions of people each year. Antibiotics, dosage the most commonly used pharmacological intervention for bacterial infections are without doubt in many cases lifesaving but also appear to increase the incidence of morbidity and mortality in the general population. Overuse of antibiotic treatments has resulted in the spread of nosocomial infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Using antibiotics frequently may even result in an overall increase of microbial load with the host (1).
NATIONAL Action Plan for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria
“The National Action Plan for Combating Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria provides a roadmap to guide the Nation in rising to this challenge. Developed in response to Executive Order 13676: Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria—issued by President Barack Obama on September 18, find 2014—the National Action Plan outlines steps for implementing the National Strategy for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria and addressing the policy recommendations of the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST)” (2). Yearly, page AMR-infections claim at least 50,000 lives across the US and Europe alone and reliable estimates of the true burden are scarce. Estimated deaths attributable to AMR in 2050 are 10 million and 1.4 million attributable to diarrheal disease (1).
INFECTIONS and Infectious Diseases
Communicable diseases are a vast problem even in developed countries. There are 150 infectious diseases documented (3). Globally communicable diseases killed approximately 10 million people in 2010 (4,5). The incidence of viral respiratory tract infections in children is estimated between 6 and 8 per year. Acute respiratory tract infections are the most common reason for people to seek medical help, accounting for up to 75% of all antibiotic use in high-income countries (6). Other common communicable diseases are acute gastroenteritis and infections in the urogenital fields (5).
TEATMENTS for Infections/Communicable diseases
Mortality and morbidity rates have been greatly reduced by antibiotics/antibacterial drugs. A holding action is provided by administering antibiotic treatment. The infectious agent´s growth and reproduction is held in check until the interaction between the organism, and the immune bodies of the host can overcome the invaders. The ultimate outcome of an infectious process depends on the effectiveness of the host´s immune responses. Treatments for infections/communicable diseases depend on the type of pathogen. Many infectious diseases can be resolved by the host’s immune system without intervention or prevented by active or passive immunization (5). Most common interventions for treatments are specific pharmaceutical drugs i.e. antibiotics.
Overuse of antibiotic treatments has resulted in the spread of nosocomial infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria (8). Moreover, multidrug-resistant bacteria have occurred as adverse effects in turn increasing the incidence of morbidity and mortality (9,10).
Resistance to an antibiotic may be acquired through mutations or acquisition of genes for antibiotic resistance that are obtained from another organism or may be inherent in a particular bacterial species (11). Genetic variability existing among microbes is undeniable. Nonresistant bacteria are preferentially eliminated by antibiotic use, leading to an increase in the proportion of resistant bacteria that remain (12). The use of antimicrobial drugs eventually allows for the survival of strains that are capable of resisting them. The microorganisms can produce/synthesize enzymes, which can change the bacterial cells ability to accumulate the antimicrobial agent and modify or inactivate this agent. These enzymes can resist inhibition by the antimicrobial agent if the resistant bacterial strains have acquired genes that are encoded on plasmids or transposons (13). Inappropriate use of antibiotics needs to be minimized for the sake of public health (14). Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a fast growing problem leading to profound health and macroeconomic consequences for the world, especially in emerging economies (9,14). Yearly, AMR-infections claim at least 50,000 lives across the US and Europe alone and reliable estimates of the true burden are scarce. Estimated deaths attributable to AMR in 2050 are 10 million and 1.4 million attributable to diarrheal disease.
ANTIBIOTICS or Probiotics?
The largest immune organ of the human body is the gut, which involves three main defense function components. These are the intestinal epithelium, the microbiota and the immune system in the gut or gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) (15). The microbiota is known to be important to human health functioning metabolism, nutrition and playing a protective role against pathogens (16). Impaired homeostasis or distortions in the microbial community can be associated with pathological conditions and therefore translocations of pathogenic bacteria leading to infection in other body systems, including the respiratory tract, buccal cavity, skin and vagina (17,18,19)
PREVENTING Infections and Infectious Diseases
The best way to strengthen the immune system is to strengthen the gut microbiota. The best way to do so is by regularly taking probiotic supplements as well as consume prebiotic foods.
Multible research has revealed the effectiveness of pre- and probiotics to prevent or treat infections and infectious diseases and palliate/decrease side effects from drugs, especially antibiotics. Lactobacillus rhamnosu GG, Lactobacillus casei and Saccharomyces bulardii are few examples of probiotic bacteria and yeast.
Consuming healthy diet and taking probiotic supplement on a regular basis can prevent infections and infectious diseases.
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